Vi har vært med å utarbeide et innspill fra norske frivillige organisasjoner til norske myndigheter i forbindelse med møte i FNs kvinnekommisjonen (CSW) i New York 4–15. mars 2013. Vi bidro særlig til punktet om den økonomiske krisen og vold mot kvinner basert på uttalelsen som International Alliance of Women (IAW), der NKF er medlem, la frem på kvinnekommisjonsmøtet i New York, og som vi også har vært med å utarbeide. Torild Skard og Margunn Bjørnholt deltok i New York som del av IAWs delegasjon.
Storgata 11 • 0155 Oslo
Telefon 23 01 03 00 • Fax 23 01 03 01
This document is intended to provide constructive input to the Norwegian authorities at CSW 2013, and other international fora, including bilateral and multilateral meetings with other states, where issues relevant to women’s rights and gender equality are discussed.
1 Bakgrunn. 3
2 Deltakere fra organisasjonene og FOKUS på dag 2. 4
3 Arbeidsform.. 5
4 Recommendations. 6
4.1 Preventing and responding to violence against women and girls 6
4.2 Conflict-related violence against women and girls 7
4.3 Violence against women and the economy. 8
4.4 Violence against trafficked and migrant women and girls 9
4.5 Violence against young women and girls 10
4.6 Faith-based organizations as allies in combatting violence against women. 11
Dette dokumentet er en oppsummering av den arbeidssamlingen som ble avholdt 30. januar 2013 som en del av FOKUS Kontaktkonferanse 2013. Dokumentet beskriver kort arbeidsprosessen og de konkrete resultatene fra samlingen.
Formålet med arbeidssamlingen var å gi det norske sivile samfunn muligheten til å utarbeide konkrete innspill til hva den norske delegasjonen bør prioritere under den 57. sesjonen av FNs Kvinnekommisjon i 2013, der hovedtemaet er «Elimination and prevention of all forms of violence against women and girls».
2 Deltakere fra organisasjonene og FOKUS på dag 2
Agersborg, Marina Latin-Amerika Gruppenes Kvinneutvalg
Andersen, Charlotte Stiftelsen Amathea
Aschjem, Camilla Norges Kristne Råd
Augland , Kjersti SAIH
Berg, Anne-Bente S. Norske Kvinners Sanitetsforening
Bjørnholt, Margunn Norsk kvinnesaksforening/International Alliance of Women
Brekke, Marit SAGAL
Eskedal, Torunn Latin-Amerika Gruppenes Kvinneutvalg
Giæver, Wenche Lie International Association of Women in Radio and Television (IAWRT)
Helvik, Solveig International Association of Women in Radio and Television (IAWRT)
Henriksen, Helene CARE Norge
Holte, Irene Wenaas Norges Kristne Råd
Holter, Thora Kirkens Nødhjelp
Hovde, Karin KUN senter for kunnskap og likestilling
Johansen, Lone Alice Krisesentersekretariatet
Koffeld, Kjersti SAIH
Langsether, Helene FOKUS
Lindstad, Gro FOKUS
Lopez Taylor, Ana Isabel Innvandrernes landsorganisasjon (INLO)
Moberg, Mette FOKUS
Polden, Gerd Inger International Association of Women in Radio and Television (IAWRT)
Popic, Anton FOKUS
Risa, Vibeke Flyktninghjelpen
Rønes, Anneli Sex og politikk
Sahal, Sada A. SAGAL
Salimi, Fakhra MiRA senteret
Setek, Lise Tostrup Norsk Kvinnelig Teologforening
Sivertsen, Lisa CARE Norge
Snesrud, Liv Kirkens Nødhjelp
Somby, Silja GÁLDU
Swärd, Elisabeth T. Norske Kvinners Sanitetsforening
Tordsson, Lina Reform- Ressurssenter for menn
Zachariassen, Heidi Holt Digni
Arbeidsprosessen som ble benyttet under samlingen bygger på aktiv samhandling mellom deltakere med ulike interessefelt og kompetanse for å sikre konsensus rundt de konkrete anbefalingene. Deltakerne ble inkludert i en intensiv prosess der informasjon, kunnskap og rammebetingelser ble delt og utforsket. Aktivitetene var tilrettelagt for å stimulere til helhetlig tankegang og samarbeid for å skape en felles anbefaling innenfor de aktuelle hovedtemaene.
Deltakerne var enige om at gruppearbeidet ble delt opp i seks tematiske grupper for utdypende diskusjon. Innspillene fra hver av gruppene ble dokumentert og delt med samtlige av de andre deltakerne i plenum. I løpet av presentasjonen ble det gitt rom for innspill fra samtlige deltakere.
Det var konsensus blant deltakerne rundt de endelige innspillene med tilhørende kommentarer. Det var videre enighet om at FOKUS- sekretariatet har deltakernes tillit til å oppdatere innspillene innenfor hvert fokusområde i hht. de kommentarene og utdypningene som fremkom i løpet av presentasjonene.
The term violence against women refers to “any act of gender-based violence that results in, or is likely to result in, physical, sexual or mental harm or suffering to women, including threats of such acts, coercion or arbitrary deprivation of liberty, whether occurring in public or in private life.” (CEDAW, 1979)
4.1 Preventing and responding to violence against women and girls
Why this is important
Violence against women and girls is a major violation of women’s and girls’ human rights. A WHO multi-country study found that between 15-71 percent of women aged 15-49 years reported physical and/or sexual violence by an intimate partner at some point in their lives. Violence against women and girls is one of the biggest obstacles for gender equality and the fulfillment of women’s rights. The cost of the violence is enormous, both in an economic sense and at a personal level.
Norwegian authorities should:
- Lobby for a UN convention on the prevention and combating of violence against women and domestic violence, modeled on the Council of Europe convention;
- Encourage all member states to criminalize and punish violence against women and girls, including domestic violence, in its national legislation;
- Promote and fund primary preventive measures on violence against women (as outlined by the Council of Europe convention);
- Urge all member states to develop and implement a national plan of action for preventing and responding to violence against women and girls, in cooperation with civil society and the media;
- Encourage the UN and its member states to allocate resources to generate knowledge, including best practices, about the prevalence, causes, consequences and social and economic costs of violence against women and girls, and map high-risk groups of both potential perpetrators and victims in order to launch targeted preventive measures;
- Urge member states to educate professionals and volunteers involved in preventing, protecting and prosecuting violence against women and girls, including the police, the judiciary and correction systems, health workers, youth workers, and teachers;
- Promote the establishment of integrated centers for responding to violence against women and girls, offering medical, psychological and legal help, and including civil society actors, especially women’s organizations;
- Promote and fund programs that help men and boys adopt non-violent masculinities, including rehabilitation programs for perpetrators of violence against women and girls, but ensure that the funding for these programs does not come at the expense of programs for women victims of violence;
- Advocate for member states to ensure that all girls and women have access to knowledge of their legal rights, and services available to them;
- Urge the UN and its member states to adequately fund women’s organizations as important allied in the fight against violence against women and girls;
- Insist that each woman be accorded all human rights irrespective of her nationality, ethnicity, religion, marital status, sexual orientation or disability.
4.2 Conflict-related violence against women and girls
Why this is important
Women and girls suffer a disproportionate burden of armed conflicts. They are sexually assaulted en masse in complete impunity, and are, at the same time, denied the opportunity to participate in spaces where solutions are negotiated or implemented. The UN Security Council has recognized this, and has since 2000 passed five resolutions on the topic of women, peace and security (1325, 1820, 1888, 1889, and 1960). Unfortunately, there is little evidence of these being implemented on the ground or of their measurable impact on the well-being and protection of the human rights of women and girls living in conflict and post-conflict settings.
The following recommendations are first and foremost relevant for contexts of conflict and post-conflict, although most of them are also applicable to complex humanitarian emergency settings, such as natural disasters.
Norwegian authorities should:
- Promote gender equality as a central issue to achieving sustainable peace and security (as outlined in the UN Security Council Resolutions 1325, 1820, 1888, 1889, and 1960) and support the active participation of civil society in implementing the mentioned resolutions;
- Promote equal participation of women in all peace negotiations (by all conflict parties), both as a right in itself and to ensure that all perspectives are represented, as demanded by UNSCR 1325;
- Urge member states to align traditional justice mechanisms with international legal framework and vigorously promote formal accountability for perpetrators of violence (including high-level official) against women and girls in conflict and post-conflict settings, especially for sexual assaults (defined as a weapon of war by UNSCR 1820);
- Encourage member states to ratify the Rome Treaty of the International Criminal Court, in which heinous forms of systematic (including sexual) violence against civilians are recognized as crimes against humanity, war crimes, and in some situations, genocide;
- Advocate for the Arms Trade Treaty to include a ban on international transfer of conventional arms where there is a substantial risk that the arms under consideration are likely to be used to perpetrate or facilitate acts of gender-based violence, including rape and other forms of sexual violence;
- Advocate for the democratic control of armed forces and encourage member states to systematically train civilian and military personnel on their obligation to protect against sexual violence;
- Urge member states to establish and strengthen adequate referral services for women and girls victims of conflict-related violence, including access to justice, health and psycho-social support;
- Urge member states to ensure that the normative framework is operationalized by the relevant UN agencies, and with particular emphasis on UNOCHA as the humanitarian coordinator in conflict, post-conflict and humanitarian contexts;
- Encourage the UN to strengthen and resource the Office of the Special Representative on Sexual Violence in Conflict, keeping in mind that the responsibility to oversee and operationalize the relevant resolutions lies with all the UN entities;
- Promote an expanded definition of security, not limited to its military aspects, but extending to human security.
4.3 Violence against women and the economy
Why this is important
Economic equality between men and women is a key factor in preventing gender-based violence, in particular domestic violence. Gender inequality based on economic disparity amplifies women’s vulnerability to violence. There is strong evidence of clear links between violence against women and unemployment, homelessness, and inadequate housing.
There is evidence that women and girls are exposed to a greater risk of violence during economic crises, which tend to exacerbate gender inequalities in the economy. The ongoing world financial crisis poses threats to gains in gender equality, poverty reduction, and the fulfillment of MDGs. Women’s economic position at the start of the crisis was less favorable than that of men, and the response to the crisis has affected women stronger.
The current financial crisis is partly a consequence of the lack of representation of women in financial decision-making structures. Rectifying this inequality will have long-term preventive effects on violence against women.
It is urgent to evaluate the global financial architecture and its actors on the basis of the human rights framework, taking into account all relevant human rights conventions, including those on the specific rights of women.
Norwegian authorities should:
- Encourage member states to adopt gender budgeting as a standard methodology of all public budget processes;
- Advocate investment in social infrastructure (education, health, child and dependent persons care), in order to ease the disproportionate burden of economic inequalities on women and enable them to participate in the labor market;
- Promote measures concerning the equal participation of women at all levels of decision making in the political, economic and financial sectors, including in the private sector;
- Make visible the long-term cost of violence against women and girls and promote comprehensive preventive measures on violence against women and girls as sound investment in the economic and social development of a country;
- Encourage member states to ratify and respect the ILO resolution 169 on indigenous people’s right to be consulted, given that indigenous people, especially women, suffer violence directed at them for defending their territories from economic exploitation and environmental degradation.
4.4 Violence against trafficked and migrant women and girls
Why this is important
For women and girls victims of human trafficking, 80 percent of whom are trafficked for the purpose of sexual exploitation, violence is part of everyday life. They experience severe physical and sexual violence and need specialized assistance and (re)integration options, including access to medical services, psychosocial support, legal counseling, training and/or educational support.
For some of the 105 million international migrant women and girls worldwide, violence and discrimination can appear at the very start of the migration process. Women’s motivation to migrate may be influenced by situations where discrimination, for example in the labor market, is prevalent. Prejudice against certain categories, such as single mothers, wives, widows, lesbians and transgender persons, can also act as a push factor.
On arrival in the country of destination, violence and discrimination continue to be part of the lives of most trafficked and many migrant women and girls as they experience dual vulnerability to violence. This is primarily due to their status as women, reflecting gender inequalities existing in both origin and destination societies, as well as their status as foreigners. Often, these two main causes of vulnerability intersect with additional risk factors.
Norwegian authorities should:
- Urge all member states to sign, ratify and implement the Palermo Protocol on Trafficking in Persons;
- Promote the implementation of mechanisms to identify victims of trafficking;
- Urge member states to accord the persons identified as possible victims of trafficking the primary status as a victim of trafficking, regardless of nationality or legal status in the country in order to make member states assume the responsibility for interrupting the trafficking cycle and providing the best possible assistance to the victims.
- Advocate for the universal adoption of legal measures aimed at reducing the demand for victims of human trafficking, including through the criminalization of the buyers of transactional sex;
- Urge all member states to guarantee sexual and reproductive health and rights of trafficked women (including access to free, legal and safe abortion);
- Demand the creation and implementation of mechanisms to secure refugee women and girls’ right to be free from violence in refugee camps and in asylum centers;
- Reaffirm the principle of non-refoulement as a key facet of refugee law that concerns the protection of refugees from being returned to places where their lives or freedoms could be threatened.
- Urge member states to secure the judicial rights of women and girls victims of trafficking;
- Promote the right of au pairs, victims of trafficking, asylum seekers and women and girls seeking family reunion to be free from violence;
- Urge member states to guarantee the security for family members of trafficking victims;
- Ensure that the rights of all women and girls, especially those from vulnerable groups, to be free from violence perpetrated by states, family members or by the general public are guaranteed by member states;
- Promote and ensure migrant and trafficked women and girls’ access to female interpreters who speak their native language in their contact with immigration authorities;
4.5 Violence against young women and girls
Why this is important
In working with violence against women, special attention needs to be given to young women and girls as they are more vulnerable to violence than adult women. Thus, different measures need to be taken, and prevention initiatives have to start at an early age to be effective. Due to patriarchal and age structures, as well as social, cultural and economic factors, young women tend to have less influence on decisions concerning their own body and health, especially in regards to sexual and reproductive health and rights. Due to these factors, young women are more vulnerable to gender-based violence, including sexual violence. It is thus important to mobilize both young women and men in order to create norms and structures that can help prevent violence against women.
Norwegian authorities should:
- Urge member states to secure quality education based on human rights and gender equality, that deconstructs existing gender based power structures, creates safe spaces and inclusive learning environments for marginalized groups in order to promote the development of respectful relations and to eliminate prejudices, harmful customary practices and all other practices based on the idea of the inferiority or superiority of either of the sexes and on stereotyped roles for men and women.
- Promote comprehensive sexuality education that is non-discriminatory, non-judgmental, rights-based – emphasizing sexual and reproductive rights – age appropriate, gender-sensitive, youth- friendly, evidence based and inclusive of sexual orientation and gender identity.
- Advocate for universal access to a basic package of youth-friendly health services (including mental healthcare and sexual and reproductive health services) that are high quality, integrated, equitable, comprehensive, affordable, needs and rights based, accessible, acceptable, confidential and free of stigma and discrimination for all young people.
- Urge member states to put in place appropriate legislative, administrative, social and educational measures to eliminate harmful practices, including early and forced marriages, FGM, forced abortion and/or forced sterilization.
4.6 Faith-based organizations as allies in combatting violence against women
Why this is important
Gender equality has been under threat by religious states and organizations in the UN and other international fora. The aggressive attack by these forces is threatening to undermine the important achievements in women’s rights, especially in regards to the women’s right to a life free of violence and women’s sexual and reproductive rights.
Despite their reference to religion, the reactionary rhetoric of these groups is in reality a disguise for maintaining patriarchal power and structures. As for the argument that promoting women’s rights is a threat to traditional culture, we would like to strongly warn against allowing culture to ever be an excuse for abuse. Neither religion nor culture should be utilized to dispute the normative framework for upholding human rights.
Turning the situation around will require long-term efforts. Faith-based organizations and actors can play an important role in this regard by promoting religious literacy as a countermeasure against religious rhetoric employed to justify setbacks for women’s rights. Long-term cooperation with religious leaders and institutions has been of great significance for the success in the work against female genital mutilation and forced and early marriages, and in promoting women’s participation, inheritance rights, and sexual and reproductive health and rights. The many positive results of this work can be attributed to the religious literacy promoted by progressive faith-based actors.
Norwegian authorities should:
- Involve progressive faith-based organizations in promoting a new UN convention on violence against women and girls;
- Secure meeting points for Norwegian authorities and Norwegian and international faith-based organizations during and after CSW 2013;
- Secure representation and give voice to female religious scholars and women representing faith-based organizations;
- Use positive male role models from religious institutions in addressing gender-based violence at international meetings, conferences, etc.;
- Avail themselves of the Norwegian faith-based organizations and their international religious partners’ assistance in decoding and analyzing religious terminology before and during CSW 2013 and other relevant fora, as means to promote the issues at stake;
- Demand a consistent inclusion of and reference to human rights in all documents under review in UN and other international fora.
- Oppose all efforts by member states, international organizations or civil society to make excuses for violence against women and girls on the ground of culture, custom, religions or “honor.”
 Marginalized groups as defined in the Bali Global Youth Forum Declaration 2012; ”Girls, LGBTQI, people living with disabilities, indigenous people, migrants, [socioeconomic status], language minorities, women, pregnant girls, people living in the context of war and humanitarian contexts, sex workers, people living with HIV/AIDS, dropouts, Afro- descendants, and displaced peoples.” http://icpdbeyond2014.org/uploads/browser/files/bali_global_youth_forum_declaration.pdf
 With reference to the WHO working definitions of sexual rights, the Yogyakarta Principles, http://www.yogyakartaprinciples.org/yogyakarta-article-human-rights-law-review.pdf and Sexual Rights as defined in the IPPF Declaration; http://ippf.org/resources/publications/sexual-rights-ippf-declaration
 With reference to the Bali Global Youth Forum Declaration 2012.
 With reference to the General Assembly Resolution, 23 Nov 2012, A/C.3/67/L.19/Rev.1 Intensification of efforts to eliminate all forms of violence against women.
 ACT Alliance (New York), WYWCA, WCC, INERELA and others
Forslaget fra arbeidsgruppen som laget
innspillet om økonomi :
Møte i FOKUS 30.01.2013 Oppfølging av kontaktkonferansen 29.01.2013
Innspill fra arbeidsgruppen på den globale økonomiske krisen og vold mot kvinner
– Silja Somby, Gáldu, kompetansesenteret for urfolks rettigheter,
– Solveig Helvik, International Association of Women in Radio and Television (IAWRT),
– Margunn Bjørnholt, Norsk Kvinnesaksforening/International Alliance of Women (IAW)
The effects of the economic crisis on gender based violence
The ongoing financial crisis has engulfed almost the entire world in an economic recession poses threats to gains in gender equality, poverty, and all the Millennium goals. Economic equality is a key factor in preventing gender-based violence, in particular domestic violence.
There is evidence that women and girls are exposed to a greater risk of violence during economic crisis which increases gender inequalities in the economy.
The current crisis has a higher impact on women because their economic position at the start of the crisis was not equal to that of men, and the response to the crisis in terms of austerity measures which encompass public budget cuts has affected women stronger.
There is strong evidence that there are clear links between violence and unemployment, violence and homelessness, and violence and inadequate housing and harmful forms of violence against women such as trafficking and prostitution.
The current financial crisis is a consequence of the failure of the governance of finance. This governance is gendered due to a large under-representation of women in financial decision making.
Recovery plans and structural adjustment programmes have not integrated a gender perspective.
We call upon UN, national governments and regional governing bodies to evaluate the global financial architecture and its actors, on the basis of the human rights framework, taking into account all relevant human rights conventions. There is an urgent need to analyse the deep-rooted causes of the crisis and work for advancing an alternative vision of development grounded on human rights and gender equality.
Calling upon UN, national governments and regional governing bodies to take immediate action and implement the following measures in order to rectify the gender impact of the crisis:
Urge for systematic gender sensitive analysis of the causes, and impact of the financial crisis on women and the responses thereof.
Encouraging gender budgeting, including the costing of violence against women, as a standard methodology of all public budget processes.
Implementing measures to combat the ongoing process of feminization of poverty which is exacerbated by the recession.
Stimulating employment especially in the public sector by investing in social infrastructure (education, health, child and dependent persons care), which would also ease the disproportionate burden on women to enable them to participate in the labour market.
Taking measures concerning the equal participation of women at all levels of decision making in the political, economic and financial sectors as well as in private companies
Taking strong measures to combat all forms of violence against women, allocating resources and financing support services for women victims of violence.
Implementating CEDAW and the landmark Security Council Resolutions 1325 and 1828 and more recently 1888 and 1889 on women, peace and security.
Ratify the Council of Europe Convention on the prevention and combating of violence against women and domestic violence.
Deeply concerned about the ongoing global economic recession and its impacts on the indigenous women.
Are stressing that violence against indigenous women is prevalent in areas of economic conflict affecting indigenous peoples.
Reaffirming that indigenous women particularly are exposed to various forms of violence and other social vices in their efforts to defend their territories from economic exploitation.
Call upon the international society and the actors of the global economy to end all forms of violence against indigenous women.